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1) Message boards : Aggie The Pew message board (Message 136129)
Posted 98 days ago by Profile Roger


Just two more Ruby to go
2) Message boards : Generalized Fermat Prime Search : GFN prime discoveries II (Message 136100)
Posted 100 days ago by Profile Roger
Yay! Found my first GFN-16:

71083738^65536+1

Took me 26,425 tasks to find. I sampled 6,022 of these tasks and 2,705 were firsts, 44.9%.
From sub-project status page takes Average of 15,056 WU/Prime for GFN-16.
I had performed 78.8% of the tasks needed on average to find a prime.
So I was a little bit luckier than average.
Now moving on to GFN-17-Low.
3) Message boards : Number crunching : 50 years First ARPANET Connection Challenge (Message 135065)
Posted 138 days ago by Profile Roger
The results are final!

Top 3 individuals:

1: Jesmar
2: vaughan
3: zunewantan

Top 3 teams:

1: Czech National Team
2: Aggie The Pew
3: SETI.Germany

Congratulations to the winners, and well done to everyone who participated.
See you at the Aussie, Aussie, Aussie! Oi! Oi! Oi! Summer Solstice Challenge!
4) Message boards : Number crunching : Suggestions for 2020 Challenges (Message 134736)
Posted 150 days ago by Profile Roger
Thanks for everyone's input.
Taking account of all the expressions of interest for 2020 Challenges so far:
Project Total Rank TRP 18 1 SR5 16 2 ESP 14 3 SoB 11 4 GFN 20+ 10 5 PPS Div 10 5 PSP 9 7 GFN 17 Low 7 8 Cullen 7 8 SGS 7 8 321 5 11 GFN 15,16 5 11 GCW 4 13 Woodall 4 13 GFN 18 3 15 321 Sieve 3 15 PPS Mega 2 17 GFN 19 2 17 GFN 17 Mega 2 17 AP27 1 20 GFN All 1 20

Total is total number of expressions of interest for each Sub project. Multiple project suggestions were de-grouped and negative opinions were accounted with a -1. This is a numerical analysis and is only being used for information in the challenge setting process. I am looking for good ideas more than lots of votes, like some 3 day challenges.

I think it's also good to keep an open slot for possible new BOINC project that may arise; AP28, WWWW, Factorial, Primorial, 27121, handful of sieves that may get started/restarted, ???.
5) Message boards : Number crunching : Transit of Mercury Across the Sun Challenge (Message 134567)
Posted 155 days ago by Profile Roger
Just published,
Guide to the November 11th Transit of Mercury Across the Sun
https://www.universetoday.com/143562/our-guide-to-the-november-11th-2019-transit-of-mercury-across-the-sun/
Remember safety first!
6) Message boards : Number crunching : Transit of Mercury Across the Sun Challenge (Message 134237)
Posted 165 days ago by Profile Roger
Welcome to the Transit of Mercury Across the Sun Challenge

The ninth Challenge of the 2019 Challenge series is a 10 day challenge celebrating the Transit of Mercury Across the Sun. The challenge is being offered on the Prime Sierpinski Problem (LLR) application. The challenge will begin 1st November 2019 18:04 UTC and end 11th November 2019 18:04 UTC.

The transit of Mercury – the innermost planet of our solar system – will be visible on November 11, 2019. A transit occurs when Mercury passes directly in front of the sun. At such times, Mercury can been seen through telescopes with solar filters as a small black dot crossing the sun’s face. Mercury’s diameter is only 1/194th of that of the sun, as seen from Earth. That’s why the eclipse masters recommend using a telescope with a magnification of 50 to 100 times for witnessing the event.

Unless you are well-versed with the telescope and how to properly use solar filters, we advise you to seek out a public program via a nearby observatory or astronomy club.

Mercury will come into view on the sun’s face around 12:36 UTC. It’ll make a leisurely journey across the sun’s face, reaching greatest transit (closest to sun’s center) at approximately 15:20 UTC and finally exiting around 18:04 UTC. The entire 5 1/2 hour path across the sun will be visible across the U.S. East – with magnification and proper solar filters – while those in the U.S. West can observe the transit already in progress after sunrise.

The transit will be visible (at least in part) from most of the globe, with the exception of Indonesia, most of Asia, and Australia. Mercury takes some 5 1/2 hours to cross the sun’s disk, and this transit of Mercury is entirely visible (given clear skies) from eastern North America, South America, southern tip of Greenland, and far-western Africa.

To participate in the Challenge, please select only the Prime Sierpinski Problem LLR (PSP) project in your PrimeGrid preferences section.

Application builds are available for Linux 32 and 64 bit, Windows 32 and 64 bit and MacIntel. Intel CPUs with FMA3 capabilities (Haswell, Broadwell, Skylake, Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake) will have a very large advantage, and Intel CPUs with dual AVX-512 (certain recent Intel Skylake-X and Xeon CPUs) will be the fastest.

ATTENTION: The primality program LLR is CPU intensive; so, it is vital to have a stable system with good cooling. It does not tolerate "even the slightest of errors." Please see this post for more details on how you can "stress test" your computer. Tasks on one CPU core will take 18 hours on fast/newer computers and 3 days+ on slower/older computers. If your computer is highly overclocked, please consider "stress testing" it. Sieving is an excellent alternative for computers that are not able to LLR. :)

Highly overclocked Haswell, Broadwell, Skylake, Kaby Lake or Coffee Lake (i.e., Intel Core i7, i5, and i3 -4xxx or better) computers running the application will see fastest times. Note that PSP is running the latest AVX-512 version of LLR which takes full advantage of the features of these newer CPUs. It's faster than the previous LLR app and draws more power and produces more heat. If you have certain recent Intel Skylake-X and Xeon CPUs, especially if it's overclocked or has overclocked memory, and haven't run the new AVX-512 LLR before, we strongly suggest running it before the challenge while you are monitoring the temperatures.

Please, please, please make sure your machines are up to the task.


Multi-threading optimisation instructions

Those looking to maximise their computer's performance during this challenge, or when running LLR in general, may find this information useful.

  • Your mileage may vary. Before the challenge starts, take some time and experiment and see what works best on your computer.
  • If you have an Intel CPU with hyperthreading, either turn off the hyperthreading in the BIOS, or set BOINC to use 50% of the processors.

    • If you're using a GPU for other tasks, it may be beneficial to leave hyperthreading on in the BIOS and instead tell BOINC to use 50% of the CPU's. This will allow one of the hyperthreads to service the GPU.


  • The new multi-threading system is now live. This will allow you to select multi-threading from the project preferences web page. No more app_config.xml. It works like this:

    • In the preferences selection, there are selections for "max jobs" and "max cpus", similar to the settings in app_config.
    • Unlike app_config, these two settings apply to ALL apps. You can't chose 1 thread for SGS and 4 for SoB. When you change apps, you need to change your multithreading settings if you want to run a different number of threads.
    • There will be individual settings for each venue (location).
    • This will eliminate the problem of BOINC downloading 1 task for every core.
    • The hyperthreading control isn't possible at this time.
    • The "max cpus" control will only apply to LLR apps. The "max jobs" control applies to all apps.


  • If you want to continue to use app_config.xml for LLR tasks, you need to change it if you want it to work. Please see this message for more information.
  • Some people have observed that when using multithreaded LLR, hyperthreading is actually beneficial. We encourage you to experiment and see what works best for you.


Time zone converter:

The World Clock - Time Zone Converter

NOTE: The countdown clock on the front page uses the host computer time. Therefore, if your computer time is off, so will the countdown clock. For precise timing, use the UTC Time in the data section at the very top, above the countdown clock.

Scoring Information

Scores will be kept for individuals and teams. Only tasks issued AFTER 1st November 2019 18:04 UTC and received BEFORE 11th November 2019 18:04 UTC will be considered for challenge credit. We will be using the same scoring method as we currently use for BOINC credits. A quorum of 2 is NOT needed to award Challenge score - i.e. no double checker. Therefore, each returned result will earn a Challenge score. Please note that if the result is eventually declared invalid, the score will be removed.


At the Conclusion of the Challenge

    We kindly ask users "moving on" to ABORT their tasks instead of DETACHING, RESETTING, or PAUSING.

    ABORTING tasks allows them to be recycled immediately; thus a much faster "clean up" to the end of an LLR Challenge. DETACHING, RESETTING, and PAUSING tasks causes them to remain in limbo until they EXPIRE. Therefore, we must wait until tasks expire to send them out to be completed.

    Please consider either completing what's in the queue or ABORTING them. Thank you. :)


About the Prime Sierpinski Problem

Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński (14 March 1882 — 21 October 1969), a Polish mathematician, was known for outstanding contributions to set theory, number theory, theory of functions and topology. It is in number theory where we find the Sierpinski problem.

Basically, the Sierpinski problem is "What is the smallest Sierpinski number" and the prime Sierpinski problem is "What is the smallest 'prime' Sierpinski number?"

First we look at Proth numbers (named after the French mathematician François Proth). A Proth number is a number of the form k*2^n+1 where k is odd, n is a positive integer, and 2^n>k.

A Sierpinski number is an odd k such that the Proth number k*2^n+1 is not prime for all n. For example, 3 is not a Sierpinski number because n=2 produces a prime number (3*2^2+1=13). In 1962, John Selfridge proved that 78,557 is a Sierpinski number...meaning he showed that for all n, 78557*2^n+1 was not prime.

Most number theorists believe that 78,557 is the smallest Sierpinski number, but it hasn't yet been proven. In order to prove that it is the smallest Sierpinski number, it has to be shown that every single k less than 78,557 is not a Sierpinski number, and to do that, some n must be found that makes k*2^n+1 prime.

The smallest proven 'prime' Sierpinski number is 271,129. In order to prove that it is the smallest prime Sierpinski number, it has to be shown that every single 'prime' k less than 271,129 is not a Sierpinski number, and to do that, some n must be found that makes k*2^n+1 prime.

Previously, PrimeGrid was working in cooperation with Seventeen or Bust on the Sierpinski problem and working with the Prime Sierpinski Project on the 'prime' Sierpinski problem. Although both Seventeen or Bust and the Prime Sierpinski Project have ceased operations, PrimeGrid continues the search independently to solve both conjectures.

The following k's remain for each project:

Sierpinski problem 'prime' Sierpinski problem 21181 22699* 22699 67607* 24737 79309 55459 79817 67607 152267 156511 222113 225931 237019
  • * being tested as part of our Seventeen or Bust project

  • Fortunately, the two projects (and later PrimeGrid's Extended Sierpinski Project) combined their sieving efforts into a single file. Therefore, PrimeGrid's PSP sieve supports all three projects.

    Additional Information

    For more information about PSP, please see:


    For more information about Sierpinski, Sierpinski number, and the Sierpinsk problem, please see these resources:


    Most recently discovered primes:

    258317*2^5450519+1 is prime! (found by Sloth@PSP on 28/7/2008)
    90527*2^9162167+1 is prime! (found by Bold_Seeker@PSP on 19/6/2010)
    10223*2^31172165+1 discovered as part of our Seventeen or Bust subproject, eliminating 10223 from both the Sierpinski Problem and the Prime Sierpinski Problem, by Szabolcs Péter (SyP). (official announcement)
    168451*2^19375200+1 is prime! Found by Ben Maloney (paleseptember) on September 17th, 2017. (official announcement)

    7) Message boards : Number crunching : World Maths Day Challenge (Message 134220)
    Posted 166 days ago by Profile Roger
    The results are final!

    Well done to the following prime finders:
    taurec 31*2^4673544+1, is a Factor of GF(4673541,7) 288larsson 39*2^4657951+1 Jack Hiker 29*2^4532463+1, is a Factor of GF(4532462,11) and xGF(4532462,3,2) bill1024 25*2^4481024+1, is a Factor of xGF(4481020,8,5) and xGF(4481021,11,9) Miklos M. 23*2^4300741+1, is a Factor of xGF(4300740,9,5) and xGF(4300740,11,3)

    Top 3 individuals:

    1: vaughan
    2: zunewantan
    3: Scott Brown

    Top 3 teams:

    1: Czech National Team
    2: Aggie The Pew
    3: SETI.Germany

    Congratulations to the winners, and well done to everyone who participated.
    Join us over at the 50 years First ARPANET Connection Challenge that has only just started!
    8) Message boards : Number crunching : 50 years First ARPANET Connection Challenge (Message 133988)
    Posted 174 days ago by Profile Roger
    Welcome to the 50 years First ARPANET Connection Challenge

    Arpanet carried its first message on October 29, 1969, laying the foundation for today’s networked world. Fifty years later, more than 4 billion people have internet access, and the number of devices connected to IP networks is more than double the global population. The name Arpanet came from the U.S. military arm that funded it, the Advanced Research Projects Agency. When Arpanet was created, it connected five sites: UCLA, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, the University of Utah and BBN Technologies.

    The first Arpanet node was set up at UCLA on Aug. 30, 1969. The second node, at the Stanford Research Institute, was set up on Oct. 1. The first data message sent between the two networked computers occurred on Oct. 29, when UCLA computer science professor Leonard Kleinrock sent a message from his school's host computer to another computer at Stanford. Kleinrock intended to write "login" to start up a remote time-sharing system, but the system crashed after only two letters, "l" and "o", were transmitted.

    In 1983, the U.S. Defense Department spun-off MILNET, which was the part of Arpanet that carried unclassified military communications. (MILNET was later renamed the Defense Data Network and finally NIPRNET, for Non-classified IP Router Network.) Arpanet was renamed the internet in 1984, when it linked 1,000 hosts at university and corporate labs.

    The eighth Challenge of the 2019 Challenge series is a 5 day challenge celebrating 50 years since the first ARPANET Connection. The challenge is being offered on the 321 Prime Search (LLR) application.

    To participate in the Challenge, please select only the 321 Prime Search LLR (321) project in your PrimeGrid preferences section. The challenge will begin 24th October 2019 00:00 UTC and end 29th October 2019 00:00 UTC.

    Application builds are available for Linux 32 and 64 bit, Windows 32 and 64 bit and MacIntel. Intel CPUs with FMA3 capabilities (Haswell, Broadwell, Skylake, Kaby Lake, Coffee Lake) will have a very large advantage, and Intel CPUs with dual AVX-512 (certain recent Intel Skylake-X and Xeon CPUs) will be the fastest.

    ATTENTION: The primality program LLR is CPU intensive; so, it is vital to have a stable system with good cooling. It does not tolerate "even the slightest of errors." Please see this post for more details on how you can "stress test" your computer. Tasks on one CPU core will take 12 hours on fast/newer computers and 2 days+ on slower/older computers. If your computer is highly overclocked, please consider "stress testing" it. Sieving is an excellent alternative for computers that are not able to LLR. :)

    Highly overclocked Haswell, Broadwell, Skylake, Kaby Lake or Coffee Lake (i.e., Intel Core i7, i5, and i3 -4xxx or better) computers running the application will see fastest times. Note that PPS-DIV is running the latest AVX-512 version of LLR which takes full advantage of the features of these newer CPUs. It's faster than the previous LLR app and draws more power and produces more heat. If you have certain recent Intel Skylake-X and Xeon CPUs, especially if it's overclocked or has overclocked memory, and haven't run the new AVX-512 LLR before, we strongly suggest running it before the challenge while you are monitoring the temperatures.

    Please, please, please make sure your machines are up to the task.


    Multi-threading optimisation instructions

    Those looking to maximise their computer's performance during this challenge, or when running LLR in general, may find this information useful.

    • Your mileage may vary. Before the challenge starts, take some time and experiment and see what works best on your computer.
    • If you have an Intel CPU with hyperthreading, either turn off the hyperthreading in the BIOS, or set BOINC to use 50% of the processors.

      • If you're using a GPU for other tasks, it may be beneficial to leave hyperthreading on in the BIOS and instead tell BOINC to use 50% of the CPU's. This will allow one of the hyperthreads to service the GPU.


    • The new multi-threading system is now live. This will allow you to select multi-threading from the project preferences web page. No more app_config.xml. It works like this:

      • In the preferences selection, there are selections for "max jobs" and "max cpus", similar to the settings in app_config.
      • Unlike app_config, these two settings apply to ALL apps. You can't chose 1 thread for SGS and 4 for SoB. When you change apps, you need to change your multithreading settings if you want to run a different number of threads.
      • There will be individual settings for each venue (location).
      • This will eliminate the problem of BOINC downloading 1 task for every core.
      • The hyperthreading control isn't possible at this time.
      • The "max cpus" control will only apply to LLR apps. The "max jobs" control applies to all apps.


    • If you want to continue to use app_config.xml for LLR tasks, you need to change it if you want it to work. Please see this message for more information.
    • Some people have observed that when using multithreaded LLR, hyperthreading is actually beneficial. We encourage you to experiment and see what works best for you.


    Time zone converter:

    The World Clock - Time Zone Converter

    NOTE: The countdown clock on the front page uses the host computer time. Therefore, if your computer time is off, so will the countdown clock. For precise timing, use the UTC Time in the data section at the very top, above the countdown clock.

    Scoring Information

    Scores will be kept for individuals and teams. Only tasks issued AFTER 24th October 2019 00:00 UTC and received BEFORE 29th October 2019 00:00 UTC will be considered for challenge credit. We will be using the same scoring method as we currently use for BOINC credits. A quorum of 2 is NOT needed to award Challenge score - i.e. no double checker. Therefore, each returned result will earn a Challenge score. Please note that if the result is eventually declared invalid, the score will be removed.


    At the Conclusion of the Challenge

      We kindly ask users "moving on" to ABORT their tasks instead of DETACHING, RESETTING, or PAUSING.

      ABORTING tasks allows them to be recycled immediately; thus a much faster "clean up" to the end of an LLR Challenge. DETACHING, RESETTING, and PAUSING tasks causes them to remain in limbo until they EXPIRE. Therefore, we must wait until tasks expire to send them out to be completed.

      Please consider either completing what's in the queue or ABORTING them. Thank you. :)


    About 321 Search

    321 Search began in February 2003 from a post by Paul Underwood seeking help from interested parties in a prime search attempt of the form 3*2^n-1. The initial goal was to build upon the completed work at Proth Search and extend the list of known primes to an exponent of 1 million (n=1M). That was quickly achieved so they advanced their goal to finding a mega prime for which they sieved up to n=5M.

    As seen on PrimeGrid's front page, that goal was achieved on 23 Mar 2008, 7:57:28 UTC, when Dylan Bennett of Canada returned a positive result for n=4235414 (3*2^4235414-1). official announcement | decimal representation

    PrimeGrid added the +1 form and continues the search up to n=25M.

    Primes known for 3*2^n+1 occur at the following n (PrimeGrid's finds in bold & linked):
    1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 12, 18, 30, 36, 41, 66, 189, 201, 209, 276, 353, 408, 438, 534, 2208, 2816, 3168, 3189, 3912, 20909, 34350, 42294, 42665, 44685, 48150, 54792, 55182, 59973, 80190, 157169, 213321, 303093, 362765, 382449, 709968, 801978, 916773, 1832496, 2145353, 2291610, 2478785, 5082306, 7033641, 10829346

    Primes known for 3*2^n-1 occur at the following n (PrimeGrid's finds in bold & linked):
    1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 18, 34, 38, 43, 55, 64, 76, 94, 103, 143, 206, 216, 306, 324, 391, 458, 470, 827, 1274, 3276, 4204, 5134, 7559, 12676, 14898, 18123, 18819, 25690, 26459, 41628, 51387, 71783, 80330, 85687, 88171, 97063, 123630, 155930, 164987, 234760, 414840, 584995, 702038, 727699, 992700, 1201046, 1232255, 2312734, 3136255, 4235414, 6090515, 11484018, 11731850, 11895718

    What is LLR?

    The Lucas-Lehmer-Riesel (LLR) test is a primality test for numbers of the form N = k*2^n − 1, with 2^n > k. Also, LLR is a program developed by Jean Penne that can run the LLR-tests. It includes the Proth test to perform +1 tests and PRP to test non base 2 numbers. See also:


    (Edouard Lucas: 1842-1891, Derrick H. Lehmer: 1905-1991, Hans Riesel: 1929-2014).

    9) Message boards : Number crunching : Suggestions for 2020 Challenges (Message 133950)
    Posted 175 days ago by Profile Roger
    2020 is just around the corner.
    2019 has been a big success capped off with the finding of an AP27.
    We'd want to have at least one GPU challenge and at least one PPS flavor.
    Sub T5K, new formats and new projects are all in the mix at this early stage.
    Any ideas? Love to hear it.
    10) Message boards : Number crunching : Oktoberfest Challenge (Message 133949)
    Posted 175 days ago by Profile Roger
    The results are final!

    Well done to Robish for finding the first ever AP27!
    224584605939537911+81292139*23#*n for n=0..26

    Top 3 individuals:

    1: Jack Hiker
    2: tng*
    3: vaughan

    Top 3 teams:

    1: Czech National Team
    2: Sicituradastra.
    3: TeAm AnandTech

    Congratulations to the winners, and well done to everyone who participated.
    See you at the 50 years First ARPANET Connection Challenge!


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